In a small bowl combine 2 cloves of finely minced garlic, 2 tablespoons of olive oil, parsley, lemon juice and lemon zest. Set aside.
In a medium bowl add the shrimp, 1/4 teaspoon salt, 1/4 teaspoon black pepper, and sugar and toss to evenly coat.
Heat 1 Tablespoon olive oil in a 12-inch nonstick skillet over high heat until just smoking. Add the shrimp in a single layer. Allow shrimp to brown without stirring for about 1 minute. Stir and continue to cook until the shrimp are pink and the center is opaque. Remove shrimp to a bowl, cover and set aside.
Cool skillet for about a minute. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons of olive oil, 9 cloves of minced garlic and red pepper flakes and cook on low for a few minutes, stirring often. Stir in wine and increase the heat to medium-high and simmer for a few minutes until most of the wine has evaporated.
Stir in water, chicken broth and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Add the pasta and increase the heat to high, cooking at a vigorous simmer, stirring frequently, until the pasta is al dente and the liquid has thickened, approximately 15 minutes. Add the shrimp back to the skillet with any juices that have accumulated and heat until the shrimp are just warmed through. Remove the skillet from the heat and add the reserved garlic, lemon juice, and olive oil mixture. Adjust seasonings and serve.